- Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Volume I - Africa ( edition) | Open Library
- Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Volume 1
Lonicera japonica Thunb. Wilson Matteuccia struthiopteris L. Morus alba L. Origanum vulgare L. Pinellia ternata Thunb. Makino Pinus massoniana Lamb.
Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Volume I - Africa ( edition) | Open Library
Piper longum L. Plantago asiatica L. Platycladus orientalis L. Franco Platycodon grandiflorum Jacq. Polygonum aviculare L.
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Polygonum orientale L. Polygonum perfoliatum L. Portulaca oleracea L. Pulsatilla chinensis Bunge Regel Pyrrosia petiolosa H. Christ Ching Ricinus communis L. Rosa chinensis Jacq. Rubia cordifolia L. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Saururus chinensis Baill. Terminalia chebula Retz. Vaccaria segetalis Garcke, nom. Vitex trifolia L. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Ziziphus jujuba L. Allium sativum L. Angelica sinensis Oliv. Diels Astragalus membranaceus Fisch. Kuntze Carthamus tinctorius L. Cassia angustifolia Vahl Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr.
Ephedra sinica Stapf Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Illicium verum Hook. Lycium barbarum L. Rhodiola rosea L. Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Korean Peninsula. The population of the country is about Much of the country is still densely forested despite the huge destruction caused by the Korean War and allied bombing in the s. The northern and eastern regions of the country are mostly rugged mountains with dense forests which are difficult to exploit.
In severe flooding caused damage to an estimated 1. The lack of facilities and essential drugs in the hospitals caused by severe floods and famine has increased peoples reliance on traditional medicine. Traditional Medicine Systems The traditional medicine system Koryo plays an important role in Korean medical practice. It has evolved from traditional Chinese and Korean folk medicine. The herbal medicine system known as eastern medicine Tonguihak , is highly esteemed.
Moxibustion, acupuncture and oral preparations are generally practised by practitioners of eastern medicine Anonymous, At present people use herbal or traditional medicine unless they have the means to buy modern medicines Natsios, The recent crisis has however, reversed this ratio Goguadze, Herbal medicines are regulated as prescription and over-thecounter medicines.
By law, medical claims may be made for herbal medicines. The most recent edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea was published in and is legally binding.
Compendium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Volume 1
Korean herbal medicine monographs are used, although these are not legally binding. Manufacturing requirements for herbal medicines include adherence to information in the pharmacopoeia and the same GMP rules as those required for conventional pharmaceuticals. There are 1, registered herbal medicines in the country. The post-marketing surveillance, including adverse reaction monitoring for herbal medicines, was set up in WHO, Government Efforts in Development of Traditional Medicine Traditional medicine has been integrated into the official health-care system of the.
Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea. A number of policies related to this integration have been declared since It was a prominent feature of the governments political programme and was reiterated in a public health law. Under Article 15 of this law, the State is required to combine traditional medical practices with allopathic diagnosis in medical establishments WHO, Traditional medical facilities are available throughout the country and people are highly dependent on them at present.
The national policy on traditional medicines was issued in , as were laws and regulations. The law on Medical Product Management was issued in , covering both herbal medicines and conventional pharmaceuticals WHO, Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Resources A continental climate with sea on the three sides of the Korean peninsula makes the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea rich in plant species diversity. There are 4, species of higher plants in families including well known medicinal and 60 aromatic plant species Bong, The medicinal plants are cultivated as well as collected from the wild.
A variety of herbs and spices are used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Research and Development Activities Korean scientists have developed a pharmacopoeia of curative herbs. The Academy of Traditional Korean Medicine, Pyongyang carries out work in collaboration with WHO on activities related to the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in primary health care.
The Korea Technical Centre for Traditional Medicine functions as the centre for the development of process parameters, introduction of new products, formulation technologies, quality assessment methods and specifications for traditional medicine used for the promotion of health and treatment of diseases.
The Centre is working to develop antibiotics based on traditional medicine, improving dosage forms and modernizing production processes and acts as a centre for scientific and technical exchange of traditional medicine in Korea.
It carries the analysis and assay of products prepared through scientific research on Koryo medicines and is also responsible for efficacy evaluation of newly developed Koryo medicines and health foods; scientific and technological exchange and cooperation with international organizations and foreign countries for the development of domestic resources and export of Koryo medicines.
After the Soviet break-down, drug importation to the country stopped. The local pharmaceutical production collapsed in due to disasters and economic crisis.
The shortage of medical supplies has forced hospitals to rely more on traditional medicine. Hospitals usually have a Koryo production unit with qualified pharmacists who grow their own herbs in hospital gardens. According to the Ministry of Public Health, pharmaceutical factories and herb medicine management stations under the Koryo Medicine Production and Management Bureau created 3, hectares of herb gardens in Anonymous, Problems and Constraints Years of crop failure, disastrous weather and economic crisis have severely affected the Democratic Peoples Republic of Koreas health care system.
At present, people rely mainly on traditional medicine which has increased the pressure on natural resources of medicinal and aromatic plants. Efforts should be directed towards the regulation of plant cultivation, collection, raw material processing, marketing and research and sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plant resources in order to exploit them commercially. It lies off the east coast of mainland Asia near Russia, Korea, and China and consists of several thousands of islands, of which Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku are the largest, extending in a curve of about 1, kilometres from northeast to southwest.
The total area of Japan is , square kilometres. The country is one of the most densely populated in the world with a population of about million people. Japan is a heavily forested country, with forests covering around 66 per cent of the total land area. The country has more than Japans distinctive geographic and climatic char-. However many species have, been endangered by unsustainable exploitation. Traditional Medicine Systems In Japan, two types of traditional herbal medicines coexisted for centuries. The first was traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine and the second type originated in Europe and southeast Asia and gained popularity after Some of the herbal products from these systems are still used as prescription drugs in Japan Saito, TCM was introduced to Japan between the 3rd and 8th centuries.
These medicines were modified to meet local needs and are known as Kampo medicine. Since the time of its introduction until it was superseded by allopathic medicine in , Kampo was the mainstream Japanese medicine. The newly established government, following the Meiji Restoration in , favoured allopathic medicine. Doctors were trained only in allopathic medicine, with the result that Kampo medicine almost disappeared. However, it regained popularity and public interest after the Second World War and today Kampo plays an important role in Japan and is practised extensively.
- Christianity (Eyewitness Guides).
- Analysis and interpretation of ethnographic data : a mixed methods approach.
- Nur mein Jesus ist mein Leben - Score.
National herbal regulations on herbal medicines in Japan were issued in the revised Pharmaceutical Affairs Law; these regulations are the same as those for conventional pharmaceuticals. The Japanese Pharmacopoeia was last published in , and is legally binding. There is an approval system rather than a registration system for herbal medicine; at least 1, herbal medicines have been approved so far WHO, Government Efforts in Development of Traditional Medicines There are no restrictions on the types of medical procedures allopathic physicians may use in their practice.
The Medical Practitioners Law of states that only allopathic physicians may practise medicine, including Kampo medicine. A person must be qualified as a pharmacist in order to practise services related to traditional medicine according to the Pharmacists Law of The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law does not distinguish between traditional and allopathic medicine in Japan.
Both types of preparations are subject to the same regulations. In , the Society of Japanese Oriental Medicine started a registration system of allopathic physicians specializing in Kampo medicine. The system requires registration to be renewed every five years in ac-. Both the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law which was amended in April and the Regulations for Manufacturing Control and Quality Control of Drugs that came into effect in April were changed from manufacturing requirements for drug companies to a prerequisite for licences to manufacture drugs.
The good manufacturing practices for investigational products were adopted via a notice issued by the Director-General of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in April The Japan Pharmacists Education Centre issues a certificate, renewable every three years, for pharmacists specializing in Kampo medicine and herbal materials.
There is no systematic programme exclusively for teaching Kampo medicine in Japan. The Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University offers a four-year postgraduate doctorate programme in Kampo medicine, as well as the only officially recognized undergraduate medical curriculum where Kampo medicine is taught alongside allopathic medicine. Started in , the Japan Society for Oriental Medicine offers a summer programme in Kampo medicine for 60 undergraduate students of allopathic medical schools each year.