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- Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment - Peter Morris - Google книги
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Synopsis About this title An introduction to environmental impact assessment, this text is designed to be used by students of planning, environmental studies and geography. Review : 'This book should join a limited number of publications that provide the essential first stages on a rapid EIA learning curve Buy Used We are committed to providing each Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title.
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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. By John Glasson Routledge. To allow for this, public participation in the planning process is essential. The EIA provides an ideal forum for checking that the affected public have been adequately consulted and their views taken into account in project preparation. The level of consultation will vary depending on the type of plan or project.
ISBN 13: 9780415338370
New projects involving resettlement or displacement will require the most extensive public participation. As stated before, the purpose of an EIA is to improve projects and this, to some extent, can only be achieved by involving those people directly or indirectly affected. The value of environmental amenities is not absolute and consensus is one way of establishing values. Public consultation will reveal new information, improve understanding and enable better choices to be made.
Without consultation, legitimate issues may not be heard, leading to conflict and unsustainability. The community should not only be consulted they should be actively involved in environmental matters. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN promotes the concept of Primary Environmental Care whereby farmers, for example, with assistance from extension services, are directly involved in environmental management.
The earlier the public are involved, the better. Ideally this will be before a development proposal is fully defined. It is an essential feature of successful scoping, at which stage feedback will have the maximum influence.
Openness about uncertainty should be a significant feature of this process. As the EIA progresses, public consultation is likely to be decreased though it is important to disseminate information. The publication of the draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS , will normally be accompanied by some sort of public hearing that needs to be chaired by a person with good communication skills.
There are no clear rules about how to involve the public and it is important that the process remains innovative and flexible.kamishiro-hajime.info/voice/localiser-mon/logiciel-despionnage-dun-tlphone-portable.php
Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment - Peter Morris - Google книги
In practice, the views of people affected by the plan are likely to be heard through some form of representation rather than directly. It is therefore important to understand how decisions are made locally and what are the methods of communication, including available government extension services. The range of groups outside the formal structure with relevant information are likely to include: technical and scientific societies; Water User Groups; NGOs; experts on local culture; and religious groups.
However, it is important to find out which groups are under-represented and which ones are responsible for access to natural resources, namely: grazing, water, fishing and forest products. The views of racial minorities, women, religious minorities, political minorities and lower cast groups are commonly overlooked, World Bank, There has been an enormous increase in the number of environmental NGOs and "Green" pressure groups throughout the world. Such organizations often bring environmental issues to the attention of the local press.
However, this should not deter consultation with such organizations as the approach to EIA should be open and positive with the aim of making improvements. Relevant NGOs should be identified and their experience and technical capacity put to good use. In some countries, open public meetings are the most common technique to enable public participation. However, the sort of open debate engendered at such meetings is often both culturally alien and unacceptable. Alternative techniques must be used. Surveys, workshops, small group meetings and interviews with key groups and individuals are all techniques that may be useful.
Tools such as maps, models and posters can help to illustrate points and improve communication. Where resettlement is proposed, extensive public participation must be allowed which will, at a minimum, involve an experienced anthropologist or sociologist who speaks the local language.
Information dissemination can be achieved using a number of mechanisms including the broadcasting media, in particular newspapers and radio. Posters and leaflets are also useful and need to be distributed widely to such locations as schools, clinics, post offices, community centres, religious buildings, bus stops, shops etc. The EIA process must be seen to be fair.
The social scientist team member should define how and when activities take place and also the strategy: extensive field work is expensive. It is important to note that public participation activities are often reported as a separate section of the final EIA. Where experience of managing community involvement is limited, training is highly recommended.
Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques may be an appropriate and cost effective method of assessment. Managing uncertainty. An EIA involves prediction and thus uncertainty is an integral part. There are two types of uncertainty associated with environmental impact assessments: that associated with the process and, that associated with predictions. With the former the uncertainty is whether the most important impacts have been identified or whether recommendations will be acted upon or ignored.
For the latter the uncertainty is in the accuracy of the findings. The main types of uncertainty and the ways in which they can be minimized are discussed by de Jongh in Wathern They can be summarized as follows:. Research can reduce the uncertainty;. Final certainty will be determined at the time decisions are made.
Improved communications and extensive negotiations should reduce this uncertainty;. Improved coordination will reduce uncertainty.
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The importance of very wide consultation cannot be overemphasized in minimizing the risk of missing important impacts. The significance of impacts is subjective, but the value judgements required are best arrived at by consensus: public participation and consultation with a wide sector of the community will reduce uncertainty. One commonly recurring theme is the dilemma of whether to place greater value on short-term benefits or long-term problems.
The accuracy of predictions is dependent on a variety of factors such as lack of data or lack of knowledge. It is important not to focus on predictions that are relatively easy to calculate at the expense of impacts that may be far more significant but difficult to analyse. Prediction capabilities are generally good in the physical and chemical sciences, moderate in ecological sciences and poor in social sciences. Surveys are the most wide-spread technique for estimating people's responses and possible future actions.
The results of the EIA should indicate the level of uncertainty with the use of confidence limits and probability analyses wherever possible. Sensitivity analysis similar to that used in economic evaluation, could be used if adequate quantifiable data are available. A range of outcomes can be found by repeating predictions and adjusting key variables. EIA cannot give a precise picture of the future, much as the Economic Internal Rate of Return cannot give a precise indication of economic success. EIA enables uncertainty to be managed and, as such, is an aid to better decision making.
A useful management axiom is to preserve flexibility in the face of uncertainty.